约翰·穆勒（John Stuart Mill,1806-1873）
Utilitarianism consists of five chapters.
In Chapter 1, Mill begins by pointing out the current state of moral ethics, noting that mankind has "made little progress in resolving the controversial question of right and wrong" and concluding that "the test of right and wrong must be the means of determining right and wrong." Rather than a result that has been determined right or wrong "and the utilitarian principle, which Bentham called the principle of maximum happiness, played a large role in the formation of various moral doctrines, and the utilitarian view was indispensable to transcendentalist ethicists.
In Chapter 2, Mill not only discusses the meaning of utilitarianism, but also clarifies some basic ideas and core concepts in this theory. He introduced a series of viewpoints against utilitarianism, then refuted, analyzed and demonstrated one by one, and in the process made classical answers and definitions to the basic questions and main principles of ethics.
The third chapter discusses the ultimate binding force of the utilitarian principle. Utilitarian morality has a powerful natural emotional basis, namely "the desire to be in harmony with our fellow man", that is, to take into account the interests of others; As long as universal happiness is recognized as the moral standard, this emotional basis becomes the power of utilitarian morality. So this moral emotion is utilitarian morality, the ultimate binding force of the principle of maximum happiness.
In Chapter four, Mill talks about the relationship between happiness and virtue. Virtue is not only a means to happiness, but also a component of happiness, is a part of happiness; Virtue is "a good in itself," and therefore requires that we "regard the love of virtue as the first condition for the promotion of general happiness."
Chapter five discusses the relation between justice and utility. The emotion that accompanies the idea of justice (the sense of justice) has two basic elements: the desire to punish the perpetrator, and the knowledge or belief that there is a definite perpetrator. Since justice refers to the defense of the rights and interests of a person or persons, then society should defend such rights and interests out of the consideration of general utility.
Throughout the book, Mill discusses the basic principles of utilitarianism in a relatively complete and comprehensive way, and clarifies and revises the previous (mainly Bentham's) utilitarian theory. Although later generations have criticized Mill's utilitarianism and triggered some academic debates, it is undeniable that utilitarianism ethics is still playing an important role today and is still the main moral basis of modern western social science.
About the author
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
British philosopher, economist and one of the representatives of the utilitarian school in the 19th century. Because of the revision and perfection of utilitarianism and the clarification of some misunderstandings of utilitarianism, he is known as "the master of utilitarianism". His main works include Utilitarianism, On Liberty, Principles of Political Economy, Representative Government and so on.